[Home ] [Archive]    
:: Main :: About :: Current Issue :: Archive :: Search :: Submit :: Contact ::
Main Menu
Home::
IJRR Information::
For Authors::
For Reviewers::
Subscription::
News & Events::
Web Mail::
::
Search in website

Advanced Search
..
Receive site information
Enter your Email in the following box to receive the site news and information.
..
ISSN
Hard Copy 2322-3243
Online 2345-4229
..
Online Submission
Now you can send your articles to IJRR office using the article submission system.
..

AWT IMAGE

AWT IMAGE

:: Volume 21, Issue 1 (1-2023) ::
Int J Radiat Res 2023, 21(1): 125-130 Back to browse issues page
Soil radioactivity levels, radiation hazard assessment and cancer risk in Al-Sadr City, Baghdad Governorate, Iraq
I.T. Al-Alawy , W.I. Taher , O.A. Mzher
Physics Department, College of Science, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq , profimantarik@gmail.com
Abstract:   (613 Views)
Background: Natural radioactivity concentrations of 238U, 232Th, and 40K in surface soil specimens from various sectors in Sadr City were collected and measured by HPGe detector. Materials and Methods: Twenty specimens were collected from selected sites in the study district. The total average activity concentrations of radionuclides 238U, 232Th and 40K were 15.35±0.82 Bq/kg, 13.31±0.79 Bq/Kg, and 315.39±18.05 Bq/kg, respectively. Correlations between these radionuclides demonstrate a secular equilibrium in the examined soil. Results: It was found that the average rate of absorbed dose is 87.510±21.555 nGy/h which is below the maximum limit except for specimens S13 and S14, where their values are close to the permissible limit. The indoor gamma-ray absorbed dose rate exceeds the permissible limit in the soil specimens S13 and S14. Radium equivalent activities, external and internal hazard indices, representative, with respect to the examined soil, do not override the global limits.  Conclusions: Average concentrations of the radioactive elements were lower than the worldwide mean values. 40K concentration and lifetime cancer risk ELCRin  and ELCRtatal in soil specimens S13, S14, and S20 were above the recommended limit, while total annual effective dose equivalent AEDEtatal is very close to the permissible limits provided by UNSCEAR and ICRP.
Keywords: Soil, radioactivity, hazard, absorbed dose, life time risk, Iraq.
Full-Text [PDF 830 kb]   (677 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Original Research | Subject: Radiation Biology
References
1. IAEA (2004) International Atomic Energy Agency. Radiation people and environment. IAEA/PI/A.75 / 04-00391, IAEA, Vienna.
2. British Standard (2005) Measurement of radioactivity in the environment-soil. General guidelines and definitions, Part 1.
3. Khan FM and Gibbons JP (2020) Khan's the physics of radiation therapy. J Medical Physics, 45(2): 134-135. [DOI:10.4103/jmp.JMP_17_20]
4. Hoseini MZ, Shabestani MA, Deevband MR, Abedi-Firouzjah R, Ghaemian N, Abdi R (2020) Determination of diagnostic reference level in routine examinations of digital radiography in Mazandaran province. Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 190(1): 31-37. [DOI:10.1093/rpd/ncaa074]
5. IAEA (2004) International Atomic Energy Agency. Application of the concepts of exclusion, exemption and clearance. Safety Standards Series No. RS-G-1.7, IAEA, Vienna.
6. IAEA (2010) International Atomic Energy Agency. Radiation protection and the management of radioactive waste in the oil and gas industry. Training Course Series 40, IAEA, Vienna.
7. ICRP (1990) International Commission on Radiological Protection. Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, Publication 60, Pergamon Press, Oxford and New York.
8. IAEA (1999) International Atomic Energy Agency. International Labour Office, Occupational Radiation Protection, Safety Standards Series No. RS-G-1.1, IAEA, Vienna.
9. IAEA (2012) International Atomic Energy Agency. Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards. General Safety Requirements Part 3, No. GSR Part 3, IAEA, Vienna.
10. UNSCEAR (2000) United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation, Report to the General Assembly, with scientific annexes. Volume I, Scientific Annexes. United Nations, New York.
11. ICRP (2007) International Commissions on Radiological Protection. The 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, Publication 103, Elsevier, Amsterdam.
12. Zhang M and Chu C (2012) Optimization of the radiological protection of patients undergoing digital radiography. J Digital Imaging, 25(1): 196-200. [DOI:10.1007/s10278-011-9395-9]
13. Omidvar F, Bouzarjomehri F, Falahati F, Zare MH (2020) Patient radiation dosimetry during interventional cardiac procedures. Int J Radiat Res, 18(3): 511-519.
14. Google Map (2021) Sadr City, Baghdad, Iraq. https://www.google.com/maps/place/Sadr+City,+Baghdad/@33.3874573,44.4283349,9961m/data=!3m2!1e3!4b1!4m5!3m4!1s0x15579ca36a2d676f:0xba73467343160067!8m2!3d33.3899339!4d44.4606524
15. Volchok HL and de Planque G (1983) EML (Environmental Measurements Laboratory). Procedures Manual. 26TH Edition. New York. National Technical Reports Library (NTIS Issue Number 198417). [DOI:10.2172/5033707]
16. IAEA (1989) International Atomic Energy Agency. Measurements of Radionuclides in Food and the Environment. Technical Report. Ser. No. 295, Vienna.
17. Lowenthal G and Airey P (2001) Practical applications of radioactivity and nuclear radiations. Cambridge university press, 366. [DOI:10.1017/CBO9780511535376]
18. Krieger R (1981) Radioactivity of construction materials. Betonwerk Fertigteil Techn, 47: 468.
19. Venturini L, Nisti MB (1997) Natural radioactivity of some Brazilian building materials. Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 71(3): 227-229. [DOI:10.1093/oxfordjournals.rpd.a032058]
20. UNSCEAR (2008) United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. Sources and effects of ionizing radiation: Report to the General Assembly with Scientific Annexes. Volume II, Scientific Annexes C, D, E. United Nations, New York.
21. EC (1999) European Commission. Radiological protection principles concerning the natural radioactivity of building materials. Radiation Protection 112. Directorate-General Environment, Nuclear Safety and Civil Protection.
22. UNSCEAR (2016) United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, Sources, Effects and Risks of Ionizing Radiation. Report to the General Assembly with Scientific Annexes A, B, C and D. United Nations, New York.
23. ICRP (2012) International Commissions on Radiological Protection. Publication 119: Compendium of dose coefficients based on ICRP Publication 60. Annals of the ICRP 41 (suppl), 42(4): 1-130. [DOI:10.1016/j.icrp.2013.05.003]
24. UNSCEAR (2006) United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. Effects of ionizing radiation: Report to the General Assembly, with scientific annexes. Volume I, Scientific Annexes A, B. United Nations, New York.
25. Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) (1979) Exposure to radiation from the natural radioactivity in building materials. Reported by an NEA Group of Expert. Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development.
26. UNSCEAR (2010) United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, "Summary of low dose radiation effects on health. Scientific report with fifty-seventh session. United Nations, New York.
27. ICRP (1994) International Commission on Radiological Protection. Committee 2. Publication 67: Agedependent Doses to Members of the Public from Intake of Radionuclides: Part 2 Ingestion Dose Coefficients. Elsevier Health Sciences.
28. Hafezi S., Amidi J., Attarilar A. (2005) Concentration of natural radionuclides in soil and assessment of external exposure to the public in Tehran. Int J Radiat Res, 3(2): 85-88.
29. Alaamer AS (2008) Assessment of human exposures to natural sources of radiation in soil of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Turkish J Engineering and Environment Sciences, 32: 229-234.
30. Asgharizadeh F, Ghannadi M, Samani AB, Meftahi M, Shalibayk M, Sahafipour SA, Gooya ES (2013) Natural radioactivity in surface soil samples from dwelling areas in Tehran city, Iran. Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 156 (3): 376-82. [DOI:10.1093/rpd/nct067]
31. Al-Alawy IT and Salim MD (2015) Natural Radioactivity in Selected Soil Samples from the Archaeological of Ur City in Dhi-Qar Province, Iraq. International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy, 60: 74-82. [DOI:10.56431/p-14iu4c]
32. Hatif KH, Muttaleb MK (2015) Natural radioactivity level and the measurement of soil gas Radon, thoron concentrations in Hilla city. J Kerbala University, 13(1): 103-114.
33. Ferdous J, Begum A, Islam A (2015) Radioactivity of soil at proposed Rooppur nuclear power plant site in Bangladesh Int J Radiat Res, 13(2): 135-142.
34. Najam LA and Younis SA (2015) Assessment of natural radioactivity level in soil samples for selected regions in Nineveh Province (Iraq). Int J Novel Res in Phys Chemis and Math, 2(2): 1-9.
35. Zaim N and Atlas H (2016) Assessment of radioactivity levels and radiation hazards using gamma spectrometry in soil samples of Edirne, Turkey. Journal of Radioanal Nuclear Chemistry, 310: 959-967. [DOI:10.1007/s10967-016-4908-0]
36. Al-Alawy IT, Mohammed RS, Fadhil HR, Hasan AA (2018) Determination of radioactivity levels, hazard, cancer risk and radon concentrations of water and sediment samples in Al-Husseiniya River (Karbala, Iraq). Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1032(1): 012012. [DOI:10.1088/1742-6596/1032/1/012012]
37. Taqi AH, Shaker AM, Battawy AA (2018) Natural radioactivity assessment in soil samples from Kirkuk City of Iraq using HPGe detector. Int J Radiat Res, 16(4): 455-463.
38. Jebur JH, Al-Sudani ZAI, Fleifil SSH (2019) Measure the rate of radiation activity in soil sample from the depth of Sindbad Land in Basrah Governorate. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 571: 012120. [DOI:10.1088/1757-899X/571/1/012120]
39. Mostafa AMA, Uosif MAM, Elsaman R, Alrowaili ZA, Moustafa El-S (2020) The dependence of natural radioactivity levels and its radiological hazards on the texture of agricultural soil in upper Egypt. Environental Earth Sciences. 79: 228. [DOI:10.1007/s12665-020-08946-z]
40. Mohammed NA and Ebrahiem SA (2020) Radioactivity levels of 238U, 234Th, 40K and 137C in the soil surface of selected regions from Baghdad governorate. Int J Nuclear Energy Science and Technology, 14(1): 15-27. [DOI:10.1504/IJNEST.2020.108794]
41. Ebraheem RM, Al-Alawy IT, Mhana WJ (2021) Transfer Factors from Soil to Plant of Natural Radionuclides at Abu-Ghraib City, Iraq Using Gamma Ray Spectroscopy. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1879. [DOI:10.1088/1742-6596/1879/3/032071]
Send email to the article author

Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:

CAPTCHA



XML     Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Al-Alawy I, Taher W, Mzher O. Soil radioactivity levels, radiation hazard assessment and cancer risk in Al-Sadr City, Baghdad Governorate, Iraq. Int J Radiat Res 2023; 21 (1) :125-130
URL: http://ijrr.com/article-1-4597-en.html


Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Volume 21, Issue 1 (1-2023) Back to browse issues page
International Journal of Radiation Research
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.05 seconds with 50 queries by YEKTAWEB 4652