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:: Volume 20, Issue 4 (10-2022) ::
Int J Radiat Res 2022, 20(4): 845-850 Back to browse issues page
Flattened photon beams, an obsolete feature in modern linear accelerators
E.I. Parsai , E. Salari , D. Shvydka , J. Wan
Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toledo Medical Center, 1325 Conference Drive, Toledo, OH 43614, USA , ishmael.parsai@gmail.com
Abstract:   (816 Views)
Background: With the advent of Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) and recently, Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT), treatment planning using Flattening Filter Free (FFF) beams can meet all of the energy requirements in radiation therapy clinics. Manufacturers of linear accelerators no longer need to install a flattening filter (FF) in gantry head. This study aims to provide evidence of the superiority of FFF to FF through both dosimetric measurements and clinical treatment plans. Materials and Methods: A 50×50×50cm3 water phantom was created in the RayStation treatment planning system (TPS) for dosimetry comparisons. Flat beam profiles were generated using FFF beam through an optimization process for 10×10 to 30×30cm2 field sizes. Next, a comparison of treatment plans was made using 21 Head and Neck and 14 Lung/Mediastinum treatment sites using 6MV and 6MV-FFF beams. Results: Using FFF beams, profiles with flatness and symmetry identical to or better than those of the flattened beams were produced. At the very edge of the optimized plans for FFF beams, horns had the highest gamma index deviation <1.5% of the normalized dose. For clinical plans evaluated, most of the mean doses to organs-at-risk (OAR) volumes receiving 5% to 30% of the prescription dose were reduced with FFF beams. Conclusion: These results indicate the feasibility of delivering flat beams with FFF quality and producing treatment plans with equal or higher qualities in PTV coverage while achieving better sparing of OAR which will allow escalation of target dose if desired. Plus, removing FF will simplify the gantry head and reduces quality assurance and machine maintenance efforts.  
Keywords: radioactive Flattening filter free, linac, VMAT, sliding window.
Full-Text [PDF 1431 kb]   (892 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Original Research | Subject: Radiation Biology
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Parsai E, Salari E, Shvydka D, Wan J. Flattened photon beams, an obsolete feature in modern linear accelerators. Int J Radiat Res 2022; 20 (4) :845-850
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Volume 20, Issue 4 (10-2022) Back to browse issues page
International Journal of Radiation Research
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